What Are Biochemical Assays ?
“Biochemistry” is a science which studies the substances that makes up the living tissue and functions. Every living thing has its own unique chemistry whether they are developed or simple and they are the subject of biochemistry. Each substance that is taken from living tissue has various duties in the functions of the creature and everything is in balance. A slight disturbance in this balance will lead to many problems that will come after it. Sometimes, this balance is disturbed on its own. Biochemical assays are a kind of blood test and they help us to understand the substance imbalance in the body and what it means.
Blood tissue is responsible for the execution of all functions in the body. It gives important ideas about the condition of the body because it contains all kinds of substances in it. Biochemical assays are the most important blood tests. Many common diseases can be revealed with these test results. It is usually used in the assessment of metabolic and endocrine (hormonal) disorders. Also, the lack or excess of vital substances gives doctors an idea of ??how the organs in our body work. This is an indication of the effect of different organs on the blood chemistry.
Which Blood Results Can Be Found in Biochemical Assays ?
A person who wants to assay biochemical assay should apply to Internal Diseases Department. The specialist in Internal Diseases Department will direct the people to Hematology Laboratory (Hematology: Blood science) in order to make his thoughts clear once he listens to the complaints and examined them. Some blood of the patient will be taken to a glass tube and labeled (Labelling process is to have the desired blood test. It will prevent any mistakes).
The labeled tube will be sent for examination and results will be obtained. Substances in blood and normal ranges of these substances can be seen in these results. Values below or over the normal will be seen as bold. Normal ranges are different in female, male, adult, child, elderly, pregnant or people with single kidneys. The following results can be obtained from biochemical assays:
Urea: It is a waste substance that is required to dispose of the body which results in the fragmentation of these proteins by body metabolism after consuming foods with proteins. The urea is produced in the liver and disposed of the body after filtered through the kidneys. When a problem occurs in both or at least one of these organs, the urea balance in the body will be disturbed.
Kidney, heart and digestive diseases, unconscious diet, muscle loss and low water consumption are the events which increase the urea intensity in the blood. The low urea level is the indicator of a problem as high urea levels. When liver cannot digest the protein or you adopt a diet with low protein, these will lead to decrease in urea level in the body.
Uric Acid: Purine substance in protein foods will be converted into uric acid with fragmentation. The formed uric acids will be disposed of the body after being filtered in the kidney. When the functions of the kidney are disturbed or the body is dehydrated, the uric acid will not be able to dispose of the body and uric acid accumulation occurs in the body. Uric acids are pointed crystal structures. They cause gout disease by infecting the bones when they accumulate in the bone tissue.
Uric acid is available in the body of every people. The low levels of this substance are usually interpreted as consuming low protein foods. Also, hyperthyroidism, MS disease, Fanconi Syndrome, Wilson’s disease, excessive anti-uretic hormone release will cause low uric acid. Use of drugs that increase or decrease uric acid will affect the uric acid levels.
Creatinine: It is the waste product of creatine substance which provides energy to the muscles. Since creatinine is carried by blood and filtered by kidneys to dispose of the body, the function of the kidneys determine the level of creatinine in the blood. Because water affects the proper function of the kidneys, dehydration will prevent the creatinine substance to disposed of the body.
The muscle ratio in the body also affects the creatinine level. The creatinine ratio is more in men when compared to women. The “minimum” value of the creatinine substance in people who have single kidney is double times more than the normal people.
HDL – LDL – Triglycerides: HDL is benign and LDL is malignant cholesterol. The risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer will be low in line with how high is the HDL value. HDL cleans cholesterol plaque that accumulates in the blood and carrying the cholesterol to the liver. Sometimes, the HDL ratio may be above the normal limits.
You should not worry unless there is a huge gap, on the contrary, you should be happy about it. LDL is also a cholesterol produced in the liver. When it exceeds the normal limits, cholesterol plaques form in the veins however it will protect the vascular health in case it will be within normal ranges. It also ensures the transport of important fats in the veins such as omega 3
Triglycerides are also an important source of energy in the body. Consumed fats and unspent calorie foods are stored as triglycerides in the body. Normal range will provide the required energy for the body functions and daily activities. The excess of it will lead to liver fat and cause circulatory system diseases. This will lead to serious diseases (Acromegaly, Liver, and Kidney Diseases, Cushing’s Syndrome, Polycystic Over Syndrome, Hepatitis, Lipodystrophies)
AST and ALT: They are liver enzymes. The ratios of these enzymes are checked in identifying the liver damage. However as these two substances are available in other tissues such as kidney, heart, skeletal muscle, red blood cells, and pancreas, it is not safe to say that it only leads to liver problems. Excessive AST and ALT in the body will reveal the severity of tissue damage. Experts will try to reveal the main problem and start the treatment by checking all relevant organs in various ways when they find high levels of these substances.
Phosphorus: It is equivalent to 1% of body weight of a person. It is the most common substance in the body after the calcium. Many vital functions are provided by phosphorus. Low or high levels will bring the kidneys into the mind at first however many diseases may cause this condition. Phosphorus is the basic building blocks of DNA and RNA that carry our genetic identity. It has an active role in all organs (especially bones, teeth and nerves) and all body functions (circulation, nerve conduction, discharge…)
Phosphorus has repair and strengthening features. High phosphorus levels in the blood may be the sign of thyroid, kidney, liver diseases, tissue and cell destruction (toxin effect), inflammation formations. Low level of phosphorus means that the amount of the taken phosphorus is lower than the disposed of phosphorus through the kidneys. Since phosphorus is more or less involved in the structure of all organs, the deficiency will lead to many health problems but especially bone diseases and nervous transmission failures.
Albumin – Total Bilirubin – Direct Bilirubin: Albumin is an auxiliary protein for development and repair. It is produced in the liver. Bilirubin is also produced in the liver. Low or high levels of this substance are the indicator of liver disease or a problem in the bile ducts. Since bilirubin forms as a result of the fragmentation of red blood cells, high levels of bilirubin in blood also shows that blood cells are damaged in a high degree. The rate of bilirubin is also high in hepatitis diseases.
Calcium – Sodium – Potassium: Calcium is the most abundant substance in the body. It has an important role in muscle, skeleton and nervous system. It directly or indirectly affects many body functions. Especially kidney, small intestine and pancreas problems may cause imbalanced in calcium values. Sodium affects almost all body functions like calcium. It ensures muscle contraction, proper nerve conduct and balance of the body fluids.
The high levels of these two substances in the body will lead to all sorts of diseases that you may imagine. Especially, bone, nervous and muscular diseases are the most common ones. Potassium affects the muscle system. The hearth is included in this (The heart is a muscle system which functions involuntarily). It is important for vital functions. Excess calcium, sodium, and potassium are disposed of the body through kidneys. When the levels of these substances are high, experts will be suspicious about kidney problems.
Amylase – Creatine Kinase – Creatine Kinase-MB: Amylase is the enzyme that converts starch into sugar. It is secreted by the pancreas and salivary glands. In general, it is high in pancreatic diseases and low in liver diseases. Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme that provides energy to the body. It is produced in many tissues and organs.
The level of this substance is very important for the detection of muscle inflammation/damage. As these damages may be genetic, they can also be caused by viruses or bacteria. Since heavy exercises also force muscles the level of creatine kinase will increase.
Creatine kinase-MB is also produced in different tissues and it is one of three forms of the creatine kinase. It has not abundant in the body. It is secreted by the heart muscle. When there is damage to the heart muscle or heart attack occurs, the creatine kinase-MB level in the blood will increase.
Total Protein: Albumin and globulin in our blood circulation are used to calculate the total proteins in our body. High level of total protein is the indicator of a disturbance in liver and kidney function. Low levels of this suggest malnutrition.
Sometimes diseases that prevent protein absorption in the body occur. Stomach and small intestines are the organs that provide protein absorption. The level of the total protein may be low when the structure of these organs are disturbed.
Iron – Iron Binding Capacity: Iron is the most important substance which participates in the structure of red blood cells and gives the red color to blood. Consuming too many foods containing iron, too much iron absorption in the body, inflammations and genetic blood disorders will lead to iron accumulation in the tissues and high iron levels in the blood tests. A diet which contains low protein will lead to “iron deficiency“. Iron deficiency usually indicates malnutrition.
Anemia may develop depending on the high or low level of iron. Having a high level of iron binding capacity in the blood tests means that the iron-binding molecules cannot find iron to bind and be idle. This case also indicated the presence of iron deficiency.
ASO – CRP – RF: ASO is an antibody that is produced against “streptococcus bacteria” in the body. ASO level will increase in blood after this 5 days that this bacteria will enter into the body and it will reach its highest level within 3 weeks. Although the infection will be eliminated after the treatment, ASO levels will not decrease about 1 year. CRP (C-reactive protein) is a complex protein produced by the liver. CRP level may increase in infection, cancer, or serious inflammation.
RF (Rheumatoid factor) is a protein secreted by the immune system however these will not attack bacteria or viruses but healthy tissues. RF production is not seen in healthy people. The increase in RF level in the body indicates that the immune system is not functioning normally.